FmJ, the official magazine of the International Association for the Management of Facilities (IFMA), is written by and for professionals in the workplace and published six times a year. FMJ is the only magazine to use the collective knowledge of IFMA`s global network of thinkers to provide insight into current and future fm trends. For more information on fmJ, see www.ifma.org/fmj.Articles in FMJ are wholly owned by IFMA and are subject to all applicable copyright provisions. To view abstracts and articles that are not shown here, sign up or order individual editions under www.ifma.org/fmj/subscribe. Direct questions about joining Editor Erin Sevitz at email@example.com.IFMA is the world`s largest and most recognized international association for facility management professionals, supporting 24,000 members in 104 countries. This multiplies part participates in targeted groups, equipped for their unique situation by region (133 chapters), by industry (15 councils) and by area of interest (six municipalities). Together, they manage more than 78 billion square metres of goods and purchase more than $526 billion in goods and services per year. Founded in 1980, IFMA certifies facilities management professionals, conducts research, provides educational programs, content and resources, and produces World Workplace, the world`s largest series of conferences and facilities management exhibitions. To join and follow IFMA`s online social networks, visit the association`s LinkedIn, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter pages. For more information, see www.ifma.org.
There are several ways to reduce Scope II`s emissions, including achanion contracts (AAEs) with renewable energy projects. PPAs can be a cost-effective way to acquire credits for renewable energy AND to facilitate the construction of a new renewable energy project, but they are not without risk. VPPA clients have several ways to reduce the basic risk. First, customers may require PPP payments to be made in market centres rather than at the project node. The hubs are regional aggregations of hundreds or thousands of nodes and are therefore less volatile, although they are not yet perfectly correlated with the buyer`s retail price. Implementation on the platform has increasingly become the norm for large business purchase contracts. However, the introduction of price undervalues or the location at the hub will result in the basic risk of node-to-hub on the project company, which will then attempt to be compensated by a higher price of AAEs. (Customers can also use a floor and price cap as an additional means of reducing the base risk, as this also limits the overall price change.) With an AAE, customers replace part of their electricity bill with an electricity bill generated by the system. The rest of the energy will continue to be paid to local utilities and, in cases where the tariff system is at several levels, Solar can bring a customer into the lower tariff plan, which reduces the cost of conventional electricity.
Until 2013, almost all wind and solar developments in the United States sold the electricity generated to a supply company. Already at that time, there were only a handful of buyers of renewable energy off the site (Google, Microsoft, Facebook, Apple). In some countries, air-mining contracts are already being used to finance the construction (investment costs) and operation (operating costs) of renewable energy facilities. Countries that need utilities or want to cover part of their electricity supply from renewable energy sources are particularly attracted to AAEs. The agreements are an alternative for the development of renewable energy in areas where policies are reluctant to promote the development of renewable energy (and subsidies).